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Minimum labelling: 13C

Dimensions: 3

To start with, magnetisation is exchanged between all hydrogens using the NOE. Then the magnetisation is transferred to neighbouring 13C nuclei and back to 1H for detection. Transfer either occurs to/from the aliphatic 13C nuclei or to/from the aromatic 13C nuclei (but not both) depending on the 13C frequency used during the pulse sequence.

13C-NOESY-HSQC magnetisation transfer

This spectrum is used to obtain restraints for structure calculations. It will usually be recorded with 100% D2O as the solvent – this minimises artefacts. This can be centred either on the aliphatic or on the aromatic carbons. The spectrum centred on the aromatic carbons can also be very useful for the assignment of the aromatic residues.

13C-NOESY-HSQC spectrum