Other Labelling Schemes

Here are a few other labelling schemes which I am aware of – but this is by no means a complete list. Please look at the references for more details.


Alanine Methyl Labelling

An extension/alternative to the IVL labelling method in which alanine residues are 13C labelled at the Cβ position and deuterated at the Hα potision. Two separate protocols have been developed, one of which is based on the use of a rich medium (Isaacson et al.) and the other on M9 minimal medium (Ayala et al.).

R.L. Isaacson, P.J. Simpson, M. Liu, E. Cota, X. Zhang, P. Freemont and S. Matthews (2007) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 15428-15429. (Link to Article)
I. Ayala, R. Sounier, N. Usé, P. Gans and J. Boisbouvier (2009) J. Biomol. NMR 43 111-119. (Link to Article)


Methionine Methyl Labelling

An extension/alternative to the IVL labelling method in which the methionine methyl groups are 1H,13C labelled against a 2H,12C background. Two separate protols have been developed by Fischer et al. and Gelis et al.

M. Fischer, K. Kloiber, J. Häusler, K. Ledolter, R. Konrat and W. Schmid (2007) ChemBioChem 8 610-612. (Link to Article)
I. Gelis, A.M.J.J. Bonvin, D. Keramisanou, M. Koukaki, G. Gouridis, S. Karamanou, A. Economou and C.G. Kalodimos (2007) Cell 131 756-769. (Link to Article)


Threonine Methyl Labelling

An extension/alternative to the IVL labelling method in which threonine methyl groups are 1H,13C labelled against a 2H,12C background.

A Velyvis, A.M. Ruschak and L.E. Kay (2012) PLoS ONE 7 e43725. (Link to Article)


10% Glucose Labelling

This results in a somewhat complicated labelling scheme rather like the glycerol labelling. It can be used to enable sterospecific assignment of Val and Leu methyl groups and also simplifies MAS-NMR 13C-13C correlation experiments.

H. Senn, B. Werner, B.A. Messerle, C. Weber, R. Traber and K. Wüthrich (1989) FEBS Letters 249 113-118. (Link to Article)
D. Neri, T. Szyperski, G. Otting, H. Senn and K. Wüthrich (1989) Biochemistry 28 7510-7516. (Link to Article)
M. Schubert, T. Manolikas, M. Rogowski and B.H. Meier (2006) J. Biomol. NMR 35 167-173. (Link to Article)


1- and 2-Glucose Labelling

This scheme introduces isolated 13C atoms into aromatic side chains which is useful when studying the dynamics of Cα, methyl and aromatic side chain groups using relaxation methods (Teilum et al.; Lundström et al). For solid-state MAS NMR studies these labelling schemes can be used in a similar way to the 1,3- and 2-glycerol scheme or they can be used specifically to detect inter-molecular contacts (Loquet et al.)

M. Hong (1999) J. Mag. Res. 139 389-401. (Link to Article)
K. Teilum, U. Brath, P. Lundström and Mikael Akke (2006) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 2516-2507. (Link to Article)
P.Lundström, K. Teilum, T. Carstensen, I. Bezsonova, S. Wiesner, D.F. Hansen, T.L. Religa, M. Akke and L.E. Kay (2007) J. Biomol. NMR 38 199-212. (Link to Article)
A. Loquet, K. Giller, S. Becker and A. Lange (2010) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 15164-15166. (Link to Article)


Succinic Acid Labelling

[1,2,3,4-13C], [1,4-13C] or [2,3-13C] succinic acid are used as the carbon sources in the bacterial growth medium to label a light harvesting complex in the photosynthetic purple bacteria R. acidophila. The resulting MAS-NMR spectra show an increase in resolution and reduced spectral crowding.

A.J. van Gammeren, F.B. Hulsvergen, J.G. Hollander and H.J.M. de Groot (2004) J. Biomol. NMR 30 267-274. (Link to Article)


Acetate Labelling

The protein is produced using a mixture of 15% 13C1-acetate, 15% 13C2-acetate and 70% 12C1,12C2-acetate. This reduces (but does not eliminate) the number of directly bonded 13C atoms and makes relaxation studies easier.

A.J. Wand, R.J. Bieber, J.L. Urbauer, R.P. McEvoy and Z. Gan (1995) J. Mag. Res. 108 173-175. (Link to Article)